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Nueva Vizcaya

Coordinates: 16°29′N 121°09′E / 16.48°N 121.15°E / 16.48; 121.15
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Nueva Vizcaya
Province of Nueva Vizcaya
Flag of Nueva Vizcaya
Official seal of Nueva Vizcaya
Citrus Capital of the Philippines
Watershed Haven of Cagayan Valley
Anthem: Vizcaya Hymn
Location in the Philippines
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates: 16°29′N 121°09′E / 16.48°N 121.15°E / 16.48; 121.15
RegionCagayan Valley
Named forBiscay, Spain
and largest municipality
 • TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
 • GovernorJose V. Gambito (PFP)
 • Vice GovernorEufemia A. Dacayo (Lakas-CMD)
 • RepresentativeLuisa L. Cuaresma (Lakas-CMD)
 • LegislatureNueva Vizcaya Provincial Board
 • Total4,813.88 km2 (1,858.65 sq mi)
 • Rank31st out of 81
Highest elevation2,928 m (9,606 ft)
 (2020 census)[2]
 • Total497,432
 • Rank59th out of 81
 • Density100/km2 (270/sq mi)
  • Rank68th out of 81
DemonymNovo Vizcayano
 • Independent cities0
 • Component cities0
 • Municipalities
 • Barangays275
 • DistrictsLegislative district of Nueva Vizcaya
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)78
ISO 3166 codePH-NUV
Spoken languages

Nueva Vizcaya, officially the Province of Nueva Vizcaya (Ilocano: Probinsia ti Nueva Vizcaya; Gaddang: Probinsia na Nueva Vizcaya; Pangasinan: Luyag/Probinsia na Nueva Vizcaya; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Nueva Vizcaya [ˈnwɛva vɪsˈkaja]), is a landlocked province in the Philippines located in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Bayombong. It is bordered by Benguet to the west, Ifugao to the north, Isabela to the northeast, Quirino to the east, Aurora to the southeast, Nueva Ecija to the south, and Pangasinan to the southwest. Quirino province was created from Nueva Vizcaya in 1966.


The name Nueva Vizcaya is derived from the name of the province of Biscay (called Vizcaya in Spanish, Bizkaia in Basque) during the Spanish colonial period. This can be seen in the right part of the seal, a representation of the heraldic of Vizcaya in Spain.


Spanish colonial era[edit]

An old map showing the province and its original borders.

The areas of present-day Nueva Vizcaya used to be part of the vast Provincia de Cagayan.[3] Organized religion in Nueva Vizcaya dates back to the year 1607, when the Dominican Order arrived in the province. It was not until 1609, however, that the first settlement of a religious order was established in the southern half of the province. In 1702, a convent was erected in Burubur at the foot of the Caraballo Mountains in Santa Clara, which is now a barangay in the town of Aritao. It was on this site that the first mass in Nueva Vizcaya was celebrated and the first baptism of a Christian convert was held.

Spanish conquest of Nueva Vizcaya was slow and arduous. Expeditions had to be sent again and again because the natives refused to accept Spanish sovereignty. In some of these expeditions, services of some Filipino chieftains were utilized. The most famous of these expeditions was that commanded by Mariano Oscariz, in 1847–1848, which carried him clear through the province across to Palanan on the eastern coast of Luzon.[4]

In 1818, Nueva Ecija annexed the towns of Palanan from Isabela, as well as Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, Baler, Casiguran, Infanta (formerly called Binangonan de Lampon) and Polillo Islands from Tayabas, and part of Rizal.[5][6]

In 1839, upon the advice of the alcalde mayor of Cagayan,[7] Luis Lardizabal, then-Governor General of the Philippines created the politico-military province of Nueva Vizcaya.[3] The order was approved by a Royal Decree on April 10, 1841. The original province covered the areas of present-day Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, Ifugao, Apayao, Kalinga, and Benguet, Batanes, a large portion of Isabela, as well as north Aurora.[3] After Nueva Vizcaya was created, it included the present area occupied by the province plus present-day Mountain Province, much of Isabela, Quirino, & north Aurora.[5]

Civil government was established in the province by the Philippine Commission in 1902 during the American Colonial Period of the Philippines.[7]

The territories of Nueva Vizcaya were greatly reduced when Nueva Vizcaya ceded a big portion of its north-eastern territory, including Camarag, its first capital, now Echague, to form the province of Isabela in May 1865.[3][7]

American colonial era[edit]

In 1908, the northwestern territory of Nueva Vizcaya was annexed to the newly organized sub-province of Ifugao.[3] The survey executed by the Bureau of Lands in 1914 further caused the diminution of its area and reduced again upon the enactment of the Administrative Code of 1917.[7] North areas of present-day Aurora (composed of present towns of Dilasag & part of Casiguran) were annexed to Tayabas (now Quezon) in 1905.[8] In 1918, the area of modern Aurora north of Baler (composed of Dinalungan, Dipaculao, & Maria Aurora, besides Casiguran & Dilasag) was transferred to the authority of Nueva Vizcaya, but returned to Quezon Province in 1946.

The province of Nueva Vizcaya was also included in the 12th district of the Philippine Senate during the American period. The district included Mountain Province (present-day Apayao, Kalinga, Mountain Province, and Benguet), Cotabato (undivided), Agusan (undivided), Davao (undivided), Zamboanga (undivided), and Sulu (undivided). The province was included in the district because of its ethnic compatibility with Mountain Province and other indigenous domains in the Cordilleras and Mindanao.

Official rendering of the seal used by Provincial Government

Japanese occupation[edit]

Gateway Arch near Dalton Pass

During the Pacific War of the Second World War, the Japanese captured Nueva Vizcaya and established a "comfort station" in the province, where Filipino "comfort women" were enslaved, routinely gang-raped, and murdered under Japanese control.[9][10][11] The Dalton Pass was the scene of a major battle between the Empire of Japan, the Commonwealth of the Philippines and American forces, with the Allies winning on May 31, 1945.[3][12]: 510, 535 

Philippine Independence[edit]

In 1971, with the passage of Republic Act No. 6394, Quirino, which was then a sub-province of Nueva Vizcaya, was separated from its mother province and made into a regular province.[3][7][13][14]


Surrounded by North Luzon's three large mountain ranges, Nueva Vizcaya is generally mountainous, varying from steep mountains to rolling hills, with some valleys and plains.[7] It is bordered on the west by the Cordillera mountains, on the east by the Sierra Madre mountains, and on the south by the Caraballo Mountains.[3] The province (and the entire Cagayan Valley) are separated from the Central Luzon plains by the Caraballo Mountains.

The province has a total land area of 3,975.67 square kilometres (1,535.01 sq mi).[15] The southernmost province in the Cagayan Valley region, Nueva Vizcaya lies approximately 268 kilometres (167 mi) north of Metro Manila and can be reached by land via the Cagayan Valley Road (Maharlika Highway).

Administrative divisions[edit]

Nueva Vizcaya comprises 15 municipalities, with Bayombong as the provincial capital and major educational center, Bambang (the agricultural hub) and Solano (the financial district) as the major commercial centers, and Kayapa as the summer capital and "vegetable bowl" of the province. All municipalities are encompassed by a lone legislative district,[15] but are separated into two districts for purposes of representation in its provincial board. The 1st District comprises the municipalities of Ambaguio, Bagabag, Bayombong, Diadi, Quezon, Solano and Villaverde, while the 2nd District is composed of the municipalities of Alfonso Castañeda, Aritao, Bambang, Dupax del Norte, Dupax del Sur, Kayapa, Kasibu and Santa Fe.

Geographically, the western half of Nueva Vizcaya is part of the main Cordilleras, while its eastern half is part of the Caraballos, the meeting point of the Cordilleras and the Sierra Madre. There have been grassroot moves to reunify Nueva Vizcaya with the Cordillera Region due to cultural and geographical harmony, however, none have been introduced in Congress.

Political map of Nueva Vizcaya


The 15 municipalities of the province comprise a total of 275 barangays, with Roxas in Solano, Nueva Vizcaya as the most populous in 2010, and Santa Rosa in Santa Fe, Nueva Vizcaya as the least.[17]


Ilongot tribe from Oyao in Nueva Vizcaya
Population census of Nueva Vizcaya
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 62,541—    
1918 35,838−3.64%
1939 74,582+3.55%
1948 80,198+0.81%
1960 113,824+2.96%
1970 172,198+4.22%
1975 213,151+4.37%
1980 241,690+2.54%
1990 301,179+2.23%
1995 334,965+2.01%
2000 366,962+1.98%
2007 397,837+1.12%
2015 452,287+1.62%
2020 497,432+1.89%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[16][17][17]

The population of Nueva Vizcaya in the 2020 census was 497,432 people,[2] with a density of 130 inhabitants per square kilometre or 340 inhabitants per square mile.

Nueva Vizcaya is home to about 18 indigenous peoples, which includes the major tribes of the Ifugao (Quezon, Bagabag, Kasibu), Gaddang (Solano and Bayombong), Isinai (Dupax del Sur and Bambang), Dumagat (Aritao), Kalanguya (Santa Fe), and the Bugkalot (Alfonso Castañeda and Dupax del Norte). Indigenous peoples' groups have filed for ancestral domain titles covering parts of the province.[18][19]

The Ilokano population in the province are not indigenous as they were part of the labor force initially needed by the Spanish administration to work on the tobacco plantations beginning in the 1700s, and later immigrants with skills construct churches and other structures needed for development. Indigenous tribes were not cooperative with the Spaniards. After several insurrections by the locals, Spanish officials chose to import trained labor from established settlements in the coastal regions of Pangasinan and Ilocos. So, it was deliberated in the Spanish Congress the need for in migration of labor. After it was voted by a majority and approved by the king, Ilocanos started to migrate and were given homestead. Thus, the start of the migration of Ilocanos in the province.[20]

Every last week of May, these ethnolinguistic groups gather to celebrate the Ammungan festival (formerly Panagyaman festival), a week-long affair culminating on May 24, the province's foundation day.[20]

Since Nueva Vizcaya's birth as a province, traces of the culture and customs of its early settlers—the Igorots [Ilongots (Bugkalot), Ifugaos, Isinais, Kalanguya], Gaddangs, and the Pangasinans—can still be seen.[20] The influx of civilization and the infusion of modern technology to the life stream of the province induced immigration from adjacent provinces. The province was pushed to be included in the Cordillera Autonomous Region because the province is technically within the Cordillera, however, it did not came to be due to the failure to enact an autonomous Cordillera by the national government. Today, questions linger on the exclusion of Nueva Vizcaya despite the province being culturally and geographically linked to the Cordilleras. The province also has the largest Igorot population outside the Cordillera region. Tagalogs live along the border of Nueva Ecija & in the capital, Bayombong.


Roman Catholics are about 63% of the population of the province.[21] Other faiths are divided among Aglipayan Church, Iglesia ni Cristo which form about 5-6% of the province population,[22] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses, Baptist, Methodist, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventist and other Evangelical Christians which forms about 17%-20% of the province's population[23][24] as well as Muslims and indigenous Cordilleran religions.


Nueva Vizcaya province possesses one of the most diverse array of indigenous languages in Luzon, a testimony to its cultural and geographic linkages with the Cordillera mountain range. The indigenous languages of the province listed by the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino are the Bugkalut language, Ibaloy language, Ifugaw language, Iguwak language, Irungdungan language, Isinay language, Kalanguya language, and Kankanaey language. During the later part of the Spanish regime, people from Ilocos region migrated to the province through the recommendation of Spanish officials in the province. It was deliberated in the Spanish court in Spain and with a majority vote and approval of the king of Spain, Ilocanos were allowed to migrate to the province. Thus, the importation of the Ilokano language and culture started, becoming the lingua franca of the province. Ilokano accents were affected by the native languages of the peoples whom Ilokanos intermingled with. Remarkably, the economy of the province started to grow because of the industry of the Ilocanos as well as through their innate talent in entrepreneurship and in other industries including agriculture. As Nueva Vizcaya was part of Provincia de Cagayan which is the predecessor of Cagayan Valley, a few residents speak Ibanag, which was the lingua franca of Provincia de Cagayan before it was replaced by Ilokano.


Poverty incidence of Nueva Vizcaya


Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]

Fresh tilapia catch

Agriculture is the main industry in the province, together with rice, corn, fruits and vegetables as major crops.[3] Nueva Vizcaya is a major producer of citrus crops in the country, principally pomelo, ponkan and oranges. The Nueva Vizcaya Agricultural Terminal in Bambang supplies the demand of neighboring provinces and Metro Manila. There is a mining industry in the province which added to the provincial income.[33][34] However, mining activities have also been alleged to have dried up water sources, polluted the environment, and endangered livelihoods of farmers and fisherfolk.[35][36][37]

According to the Mines and Geosciences Bureau, deposits of metallic minerals discovered in the province are copper, gold, molybdenum and pyrite. Non-metallic deposits include red clay, white clay and limestone, with sand and gravel being the most abundant deposits in the province.[38]

On January 11, 2008, the Cagayan Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) stated that tilapia (species of cichlid fishes from the tilapiine cichlid tribe) production grew and Cagayan Valley is now the Philippines' tilapia capital (Saint Peter's fish). Production supply grew 37.25% since 2003, with 14,000 metric tons (MT) in 2007. The recent[when?] aquaculture congress found that the growth of tilapia production was due to government interventions: provision of fast-growing species, accreditation of private hatcheries to ensure supply of quality fingerlings, establishment of demonstration farms, providing free fingerlings to newly constructed fishponds, and the dissemination of tilapia to Nueva Vizcaya (in Diadi town).[39]


Nueva Vizcaya has one congressional district, although there has been a longtime proposal to divide the province into two congressional districts.

Members of the Nueva Vizcaya Provincial Council (2022 – 2025)[40]
Position Provincial Official
Provincial Governor Atty. Jose V. Gambito
Provincial Vice Governor Eufemia A. Dacayo
District Representative (Lone District of Nueva Vizcaya) Rep. Luisa Lloren-Cuaresma
Provincial Board Members Patricio Dumlao Jr.
Byron Sevillena
Delbert Tidang
Eunice Gambol
Atty. Primo Percival Marcos
Roland Carub
Pablo Kindot
Atty. Edgardo C. Balgos
Florante S. Gerdan
Elma Pinao-an Lejao
Eufemia Dacayo
Victor Gines Jr.
Marizel Reyes
Samuel Balinhawang


Nueva Vizcaya has the following education institutions, among others.

  • Saint Catherine's School (Bambang)
  • Nueva Vizcaya State University, with campuses in Bayombong and Bambang.
  • Saint Mary's University (Bayombong)
  • Muir Woods Academy, Inc. (Bayombong)
  • Philippine Science High School - Cagayan Valley Campus (Bayombong)
  • Aldersgate College (Solano)
  • Sierra College (Bayombong)
  • PLT College, Inc. (Bayombong)
  • JARS Academy (Bayombong)
  • King's Colleges of the Philippines (Bambang)
  • Saint Mary's School of Dupax
  • Saint Teresitas's Academy of Aritao
  • Dupax Del Norte National High School
  • Dupax Del Sur National High School
  • Ganao National High School
  • Saint Catherine of Siena
  • Saint Louis School (Solano)
  • Solano High School (Solano)
  • Nueva Vizcaya General Comprehensive High School (Bayombong)
  • Northern Luzon Technical Institute (Bayombong)
  • Nueva Vizcaya Caregiver Academy (Solano)
  • Nueva Vizcaya Institute (Aritao)
  • Solano Institute of Technology (Solano)
  • Vizcaya Institute of Computer Science (Bayombong)

Notable personalities[edit]


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  2. ^ a b c Census of Population (2020). "Region II (Cagayan Valley)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lancion, Conrado M. Jr.; de Guzman, Rey (cartography) (1995). "The Provinces". Fast Facts about Philippine Provinces (The 2000 Millenium ed.). Makati, Metro Manila: Tahanan Books. pp. 118, 48, 49, 84. ISBN 971-630-037-9. Retrieved January 16, 2015.
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  8. ^ The picture of territorial evolution of Quezon.
  9. ^ "Philippine Survivor Recounts Her Struggle As A 'Comfort Woman' For Wartime Japan". NPR.org. NPR. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  10. ^ The Other Empire: Literary Views of Japan from the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia. The University of the Philippines Press. 2008. ISBN 9789715425629. Retrieved August 15, 2021.
  11. ^ "Women made to be Comfort Women - Philippines". www.awf.or.jp.
  12. ^ Smith, R.R., 2005, Triumph in the Philippines, Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific, ISBN 1410224953
  13. ^ "Republic Act No. 4734 - An Act Creating the Subprovince of Quirino in the Province of Nueva Vizcaya". Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  14. ^ "Brief History of Quirino". Province of Quirino (official website). Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  15. ^ a b c "Province: Nueva Vizcaya". PSGC Interactive. Quezon City, Philippines: Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
  16. ^ a b Census of Population (2015). "Region II (Cagayan Valley)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
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  18. ^ "Dipaculao Egongot ICCA, Philippines". ICCA Registry. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  19. ^ Ebreo, Ben Moses (May 1, 2017). "IP tribe pushes domain claim". Manila Standard. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  20. ^ a b c Babiera, Lester G. (July 14, 2014). "Nueva Vizcaya mounts Ammungan fest, celebrates diversity". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016. Its major tribes include the Ifugao of the towns of Quezon, Bagabag and Kasibu; Gaddang of Solano, Bayombong; Isinai of Dupax del Sur and Bambang; Dumagat of Aritao; Kalanguya of Santa Fe; and the Bugkalot of Alfonso Castañeda and Dupax del Norte. This cultural diversity came to the fore once more as Nueva Vizcaya recently celebrated the Grand Ammungan Festival to mark its 175th founding anniversary.
  21. ^ "MAP: Catholicism in the Philippines". Rappler. Archived from the original on June 22, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
  22. ^ "MAP: Iglesia ni Cristo in the Philippines". Rappler. Archived from the original on November 24, 2021. Retrieved April 3, 2021.
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  24. ^ Nueva Vizcaya Statistical Tablespsa.gov.ph Archived January 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020.
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  27. ^ "2009 Official Poverty Statistics of the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. February 8, 2011.
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  29. ^ "Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Population, by Region and Province: 1991, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. August 27, 2016.
  30. ^ "Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Population, by Region and Province: 1991, 2006, 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. August 27, 2016.
  31. ^ "Updated Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Population with Measures of Precision, by Region and Province: 2015 and 2018". Philippine Statistics Authority. June 4, 2020.
  32. ^ "2021 Full Year Official Poverty Statistics of the Philippines" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. August 15, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2024.
  33. ^ "OceanaGold inks deal". The Standard Business. October 17, 2013. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016. OceanaGold (Phils.) Inc., contractor of the Didipio gold-copper project in Northern Luzon, signed a wide-ranging memorandum of agreement with the council leaders of Didipio village in Nueva Vizcaya.
  34. ^ Gonzales, Anna Leah E. (September 13, 2013). "OceanaGold to invest $20m". The Standard. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016. OceanaGold Corp. said Thursday it will spend $10 million to $20 million to connect the Didipio gold-copper mine in Nueva Vizcaya province to the Luzon power grid.
  35. ^ Umil, Anne Marxze (March 7, 2020). "Highlights of complaints submitted to UN human rights body". Bulatlat. Retrieved June 8, 2020.
  36. ^ Contributors, Bulatlat (October 5, 2014). "Investigating mining pollution and plunder in Nueva Vizcaya". Bulatlat. Retrieved June 8, 2020. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
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  38. ^ "Mines and Geosciences Bureau; Mines Sector". Department of Environment and Natural Resources - Region 2 - Cagayan Valley. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved April 22, 2016.
  39. ^ "Abs-Cbn Interactive, Cagayan Valley country's tilapia capital".
  40. ^ "Legislative Branch – Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines". February 19, 2020. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
  41. ^ "Senate honors the "Legend of the North"". Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved May 11, 2024.
  42. ^ "Order of National Artists: Edith L. Tiempo". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved May 2, 2024.
  43. ^ "PROFILE: John Castriciones | Candidate for Senator - 2022 elections". Rappler. Retrieved May 2, 2024.
  44. ^ Gloria, Glenda (January 6, 2021). "Danny Lim: The West Pointer who rebelled against a system, then embraced it". Rappler. Retrieved May 2, 2024.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
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  46. ^ "Senate Resolution No. 36" (PDF). Senate of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved May 2, 2024.
  47. ^ "Hillarie Danielle Parungao is Miss World Philippines 2015". Manila Standard. Retrieved May 2, 2024.
  48. ^ Viloria, Angelica (October–December 2012). "Dañguilan-Vitug launches book in NV". The Marian. No. 4. Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya: Saint Mary's University. p. 2. Retrieved May 2, 2024.

External links[edit]